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Course : Head, Neck, & Dental Anatomy

Course Number
DNHY 3124
Section Number
1
Semester
Fall 2020
Location
Centennial Hall, 103A
Professor
Jill Young
Days & Times
Final Exam Day/Time
Tuesday, November 24, 2020 12:00 am

Midwestern State University

Embryology, Histology & Dental Anatomy

Dental Hygiene Program

DNHY 3022 & 3124

ANATOMIC DESCRIPTORS (2 hrs)

Objectives:  Upon completion of this unit of study, as well as incorporation of the clinical identification of structures, the student should be able to: 

1. Define and pronounce the key terms for head and neck anatomy.

2. Discuss the clinical applications of head and neck anatomy by dental professionals.

3. Discuss anatomic variation and how it applies to head and neck structures.

4. Apply the correct anatomic nomenclature during dental clinical procedures.

5. Develop a glossary of terms.

6. Differentiate between maxillary and mandibular arches.

7. Differentiate between arch, quadrant, sextant and division, and be able to show location of each on a diagram.

8. Locate and correctly identify the different classifications of teeth.

9. Differentiate between mesial, distal, lingual or palatal, buccal or facial, coronal and apical, and correctly identify each on a diagram.       

Reading Assign: Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck (5th Edi.) Ch. 1 & Ch. 2 pp. 1-26

             : Handouts

 

INTRO TO ORAL CAVITY: IDENTIFYING STRUCTURES OF THE HEAD, NECK AND ORAL CAVITY (2 hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of this unit of study, and clinical practice in identification of structures, the student should be able to: 

1.  Learn and utilize the correct anatomical nomenclature during the study of head and neck anatomy

2.  List the anatomical considerations of the head and neck region for patient examination.

3.  Locate and identify the regions, and associate surface landmarks of the head and neck.

4.  Locate and describe the extra-oral structures that are the gateway to the oral cavity.

5.  Locate and describe the structures of the oral vestibule and the oral cavity proper as to location, color, size, and/or shape.

6.  Locate and describe the papillae of the tongue and their function.

7.  Integrate the knowledge of extraoral, and intraoral structures of the oral cavity into the clinical practice of patient examination in the determination of health and disease.

8.  Discuss the function of the soft palate muscles

9.  List and describe the types and numbers of teeth in a permanent dentition.

10. Give another name for the pharyngeal tonsils and differentiate them from the palatine tonsils.

11.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck Ch. 2 pp.11-26

            : Handouts


SURFACE ANATOMY: THE TOOTH AND SUPPORTIVE TISSUE STRUCTURES: MUCOSAL, GINGIVAL, & PERIODONTAL (2 hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of this unit of study, and the clinical identification of structures, the student should be able to:

1.  Identify the divisions of the tooth, the surfaces of the tooth, and the tissues of the tooth.

2.  List and describe the types of oral mucosa.

3.  List and describe the clinical correlations associated with the regional differences in the oral mucosa.

4.  Clinically identify soft and hard tissue structures and regions of the oral cavity.

5. Identify the relationship of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

6.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 15 pp. 197-205

             : Wilkins (13th Edi.) Ch. 18 pp. 303-316

             : Handouts

 

GLANDULAR TISSUE/THYROID (2 hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to:

1.  Locate and identify all the glandular tissue and associated structures in the head and neck region.

 2.  Name and locate each of the major and minor salivary glands.

 3.  Correctly identify and palpate the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.

 4.  Describe the functions of saliva and its role in oral health.

5. Integrate the knowledge about the head and neck glands during clinical practice when these glands are palpated and/or observed for a possible disease process.

6.  Explain the composition and function of saliva. (Serous, Mucous, and Mixed)

7.  Describe the location and purpose of salivary gland duct systems

8. Devolop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign: Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck (5th Edi.) Ch. 7 pp 158-166

        : Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology and Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 11 133-142

: Handouts

 

LYMPHATICS (2 hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to:

1.  Discuss the components and function of the lymphatic system.

 2.  Name the primary lymph drainage of all the teeth.

 3.  Describe three functions of the lymph nodes and describe their size.

 4.  Describe and discuss lymphadenopathy of lymphoid tissue.

 5.  Discuss the spread of cancer in the head and neck region, and its relationship to lymph nodes.

 6.  Discuss the concept of fascial space infection, and define Ludwig's Angina.

 7.  Integrate the knowledge about head and neck lymphatics into the clinical practice of patient  examination.

 8.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign:  Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, and Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 11 pp 141-146

        : Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck Ch. 10 pp. 243-258

        : Handouts

 

FASCIAE AND SPACES/ SPREAD OF INFECTION (2 hrs)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to: 

  1. Integrate an understanding of fasciae and spaces into the overall study of head and neck anatomy as well as clinical dental practice
  2. Integrate an understanding of how fasciae and spaces communicate with the associated blood and lymph vessels in the involvement of the spread of odontogenic infections.
  3. Discuss the composition of acquired pellicle and plaque.
  4. Discuss the spread of odontogenic infection to the sinuses and by the vascular system, lymphatic  system, and spaces in the head and neck region.
  5. Discuss the complications that can occur with the spread of odontogenic infection in the head and neck region.
  6. Discuss the prevention of the spread of odontogenic infection during patient dental care.   
  7. Identify odontogenic infection lesions.
  8. ntegrate an understanding of the anatomic considerations for the spread of odontogenic infection into clinical dental practice.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck (5th Edi.)  Ch. 11 pp. 264-278 & Ch. 12 pp. 289-298

 

PERFORMING THE EXTRAORAL AND INTRAORAL EXAMINATION (1 hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of this unit of study, and the clinical identification of structures, the student should be able to:

1. Develop a knowledge and understanding of the normal morphology, and anatomy of the oral cavity and surrounding areas.

2.  List the reasons for a systematic sequence when providing a comprehensive extra oral and intraoral examination.

3.  Develop a systematic sequence for a full extraoral and intraoral examination.

4.  Identify the different techniques for manual palpation as well as the appropriate areas of use.

5.  Correctly perform palpation techniques in the appropriate areas.

6.  Give an appropriate rationale for the documentation of findings

7.  Describe healthy gingival tissue by its characteristics

8.  Develop a glossary of terms

Reading Assign: Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck (5th Edi.) Appendix B pgs. 302-312

                          : Wilkins (13th Edi.) Ch. 13 pp. 195-209

 

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT (1Hr.)

Objectives: Given lecture, reading assignments and class discussion upon completion of this unit of study the student should be able to:

  1. Define histology, cytology and embryology
  2. Discuss the difference between cephalic and caudal.
  3. Discuss the difference between the period of ovum, embryo, and fetus.
  4. Integrate the study of the embryonic period of prenatal development into orofacial development and the clinical considerations due to developmental disturbances associated with these structures
  5. Discuss the origin of tissue and the ovarian cycle and the development of the embryonic disk
  6. General understanding of cell functions
  7. Describe techniques employed to study human and animal tissue microscopically
  8. Discuss the periods of prenatal development
  9. Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy ( 4th Edi.) Ch. 3 pp18-31

 

FACE & NECK DEVELOPMENT (2 Hrs.)

Objectives: Given lecture, reading assignments and class discussion upon completion of this unit of study the student should be able to:

  1. Discuss the development of the oral pharynx; the pharyngeal arches, including the pharyngeal pouches; and the neural and vascular muscular components.
  2. Outline the events that occur during facial development.
  3. Explain the sequence of events that occur during neck development
  4. Discuss the merging of the frontal process with the branchial arches in the development of the face.
  5. Discuss the separation of the oral cavity and the nasal cavities.
  6. Discuss the various locations which are likely to entrap epithelial cells (cell rests) with potential for cyst and tumor formation.
  7. Define and explain Apoptosis

Reading Assign: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy ( 4th Edi.) Ch. 4 pp.32-42

 

OROFACIAL DEVELOPMENT (1 Hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

  1. Describe prenatal facial development during the fourth to seventh weeks of gestation.
  2. Describe palatal development during the seventh to ninth weeks of gestation
  3. Discuss the fusions of embryologic processes relative to their potential for clefting.
  4. Explain the fusion of the internal maxillary process and the globular process in the development of the palate.
  5. Explain how the tongue develops.
  6. Identify the structures present during tongue development.
  7. Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign.:  Illustrate Dental, Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 5 pp. 43-50

 

TOOTH DEVELOPMENT & ERUPTION (1.5 Hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

  1. Identify in microscopic sections, the dental lamina and the bud, cap and bell stages of the enamel organ development.
  2. Describe the stages of tooth formation and the mineralization of enamel and dentin.
  3. Describe the development of the tissues that surround the developing teeth.
  4. Describe the significance of the dentinal tubules in health as well as in carious dentin.
  5. Define the terms “Herwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath” and “Rests of Malassez” and discuss their clinical implications in terms of potential cyst or tumor formation.
  6. Distinguish between primary and succedaneous teeth.
  7. Define the following developmental anomalies and discuss the clinical implication of each:
    1. Hypodontia
    2. Anodontia
    3. Supernumerary
    4. Hypoplasia
    5. Hypomineralized
    6. Mottled Enamel & Dental Fluorosis
    7. Enamel Pearl

8.  Describe the three phases of tooth eruption:

            a. Preeruption

            b. Prefunctional

            c. Functional

9.  Explain the possible causes of tooth eruption

10.  Describe and explain the chronology of development in the primary and permanent dentition.

Reading Assign.  Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 6 pp. 66-76

 

CELLS (1Hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

  1. Discuss cell properties and components
  2. dentify the components of the cell on a diagram.
  3. Outline the cell cycle, describing the phases of mitosis that are involved.
  4. Integrate the study of cell anatomy into the further study of dental histology.
  5. Describe the mechanical attachments formed between cells, and also between cells and adjacent  noncellular surfaces.

Reading Assign.: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi. ) Ch. 7 pp. 77-83

 

BASIC TISSUE (1 Hr)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

  1. Identify and define the basic components of human tissues.
  2. Discuss the distribution of the various types of epithelial tissue
  3. Discuss the distribution of the various types of connective tissue.
  4. Identify and describe epithelium, connective tissue, nerve tissue, and muscle tissue.
  5. Differentiate between smooth muscle, striated muscle, and cardiac muscle.
  6. Identify the major tissues comprising the teeth.
  7. Identify the surface coverings of the face, lips, and oral mucous membranes.
  8. Review the major components of the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi. ) Ch. 8 pp. 85-103

 

ORAL MUCOSA & GINGIVAL-DENTOGINGIVAL JUNCTIONAL TISSUE (1.5 Hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1.  List and describe the types of oral mucosa, characterizing each type of epithelium associated with the oral cavity.

2.  Describe the location and characteristics of each type of mucosa

3.  Identify the components of each type of oral mucosa on a diagram

4.  List and discuss the clinical correlations associated with the regional differences in the oral mucosa, integrating it into patient care.

5.  Describe and explain the location and functions of the various papillae

6.  Describe and explain changes in oral mucosa that occur with aging.

7. Locate the interdental papilla and col.

8.  Identify the components of each type of gingival tissue on a diagram.

9.  Discuss the clinical considerations for gingival tissue pathology, integrating it into patient care

10.  Discuss the turnover of the dentogingival junction tissue and its clinical implications.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi. ) Ch. 9 pp. 104-119 & Ch. 10 pp. 123-130

 

PERIODONTIUM: ALVEOLAR PROCESS & PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT (1.5 Hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1. Describe the nature of alveolar bone proper and supporting bone

2. Describe the condition of physiologic tooth movement

3. . Describe the effects of the various types of orthodontic tooth moving devices on the hard tissues of  the periodontium.

4. Understand and explain the effects of aging on the tooth supporting structures and the condition of edentulous jaws

5.  Describe the location and structure of the periodontal ligament

6. Explain the overall functions of the periodontal ligament

7. Understand the different functions of nerves and blood vessels in and around the ligament and how they interact with each other.

8. Differentiate between the fiber groups: Gingival and Dentoalveolar

9. Locate and identify the different principle periodontal ligament fibers

10. Describe an interstitial space and its function

11. Describe the changes that occur in the periodontal ligaments as a result of the aging process.

12. Define “Sharpey’s Fibers” and discuss their application to the periodontal ligament.

13. Explain how pressure and inflammation affect the attachment apparatus.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi. ) Ch. 14 pp 172, 179-192

 

CEMENTUM (1 Hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1. Describe the development of cementum and its function on the surface of the root.

2. Describe the nature and the physical properties of intermediate cementum, cellular cementum, and acellular cementum.

3. Discuss the aging of cementum

4. Explain the formation of cementicles

5. Discuss the repair of cementum: functional and anatomical.

6.  Differentiate between cementum and cementoid

7. Explain how the formation of cementum is different from that of dentin.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 14 pp 172-178

 

DENTIN & PULP (1 Hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1. Describe the formation of dentin.

3. Discuss the relationship of the enamel to the dentin at their junction.

4. Describe the permeability of dentin.

5. Differentiate between primary, secondary, reparative dentin and sclerotic dentin.

6. Differentiate between sclerotic dentin and dead tracts.

7. Describe the anatomy of the pulp and differentiate between the coronal pulp and radicular pulp.

8. Discuss the circumstances under which reparative dentin is made.

9.  Explain the functions of the pulp and the regressive changes possible..

10. Describe the responses of the pulp to caries, attrition, and dental procedures.

11.  Identify pulp stones, denticles, and diffuse calcifications and discuss their clinical implications.

Reading Assign: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 13 pp. 158-170

 

ENAMEL (.75 Hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1. Describe the physical features of enamel such as the structure of enamel rods, incremental lines, lamellae, tufts, and spindles.

2. Discuss how these affect the permeability of enamel

3. Discuss the surface characteristics

4. Discuss the permeability and the etching of enamel

5. Discuss the composition of the enamel and compare the percentages of organic and inorganic constituents.

6. Discuss the clinical development of enamel caries in relation to its histologic characteristics.

7. Describe the classification of carious lesions using G.V. Blacks classification system.

8.  Discuss hypocalcification and how it differs from demineralization

9. Describe the types of dental injuries and tooth fractures that may occur

Reading Assign. Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 12 pp. 147-152

            : Wilkins (13th Edi.) Ch. 16 pp. 160-268

DENTAL ANATOMY & ROOT MORPHOLOGY: MAXILLARY & MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR, PREMOLAR, & POSTERIOR (6 hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1.  Identify the particular anatomical features of incisor teeth.

2. Contrast and compare the maxillary central incisors with the maxillary lateral incisors.

3.  Contrast and compare the maxillary incisors with their mandibular incisor counterparts.

4.  Correctly identify extracted incisors, premolars & molars.

5.  Recognize the normal and the deviated anatomical forms of incisor teeth

6. Integrate the knowledge of dental anatomy and root morphology of the permanent teeth into the dental treatment of patients.

7. Identify the function of the canine in relation to its shape.

8. Understand and identify how the canines are different from the anterior teeth, as well as how they are similar to some posterior teeth.

 9.  Recognize and identify the anatomical structure and landmarks of the canine teeth.

10. Identify and list the pertinent dental anatomical form of each tooth - cusps, ridges, developmental grooves, pits, developmental depressions, and triangular grooves.

11.  Identify and list the major differences and similarities between the maxillary first and second premolars.

12. Identify the similarities and differences in development, shape, and anatomical form between the mandibular first and second premolars.

13.  Contrast the mesial incisal angle and distal incisal angle of a maxillary incisor when viewed from the facial aspect

14.  List and describe the lobe formations of the crowns of molars.

15. Compare the formations of first, second and third molars.

16.  Understand the anchorage of the roots as a resistance to forces of displacement.

17. Identify each molar and understand its function.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Chs.. 16-18 pp. 207-261

            : Root Morphology Book

 

DECIDUOUS DENTITION (1 hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to:   

  1. Identify the types of deciduous teeth.
  1. List the essential differences between deciduous and permanent teeth.
  1. Describe the importance and functions of deciduous teeth.
  1. Discuss the important clinical considerations and developmental disturbances based on the anatomy
  2. of the primary teeth.
  1. Integrate the knowledge of dental anatomy of the primary teeth into the treatment of dental patients.
  1. Develop a glossary of terms.

 Reading Assign: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 18 pp. 262-268

     :Root Morphology Workbook

 

TMJ - TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (1 hr.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to: 

1.  Locate and identify the specific anatomical landmarks of the temporomandibular joint.

2.  Define the role of the synovial cavity.

3. Describe the movements of the TMJ and their relationship to the muscles in the head and neck region.

4. Define disk derangement, subluxation, bruxism, and TMJ sounds.

5.  Discuss probable causes of TMJ pain.

6.  Discuss disorders of the TMJ.

7.  Integrate the knowledge about the anatomy of the TMJ into the clinical examination of the joint.

8.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck (5th Edi.)  Ch. 5 pp. 123-131

            : Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch. 19 pp. 272-275

 

FORM, FUNCTION AND OCCLUSION (2 hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study and limited intraoral examinations the student should be able to:

1. Identify proximal contact areas, interproximal spaces, and embrasures, and give their importance to

  the function and integrity of the masticatory system.

2. Identify and define Curve of Spee, and Curve of Wilson.

3. Identify the successful characteristics of tooth shape and alignment in protecting the periodontium.

4. Describe Angle's classification of occlusion.

5. Identify and describe three types of occlusal classifications, and the accompanying facial profiles.

6. Describe and correctly identify five deviations in individual tooth positioning.

a.  labioversion or buccoversion

b.  linguoversion

c.  infraversion

d.  supraversion

e.  torsoversion

7.  Define, recognize and record overjet, underjet, overbite, crossbite, open bite and edge-to-edge or end-to-end bite.

8.  Define traumatic occlusion and describe possible related clinical findings.

9.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign: Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, & Anatomy (4th Edi.) Ch.20 pp. 281-298

     :Wilkins Ch. 16 pp 269-275

 

OSTEOLOGY OF THE SKULL (12 Hrs.)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to:

1.  Name the bones of the neurocranium and the viserocranium and describe their landmarks.

2.   Identify the various bones and sutures as seen from the anterior, lateral, posterior, inferior, and interior view of the skull.

3.  Name the openings, foramina, and canals as seen from the aforementioned views.

4.  Identify the divisions, processes, and landmarks of the maxillae, and the mandible.

5.  Describe the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone and their components.

6.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign: Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck Ch. 3 pp. 32-81

 

MUSCLES OF THE HEAD AND NECK  (12 hrs)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to:   

1.Categorize the muscles according to their roles in elevation, depression, protrusion, retrusion, and lateral excursion.

2. Identify the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles and their role in mandibular movement, as well as swallowing and phonation.

3.  Describe the origin, insertion, and action of the muscles of mastication and facial expression.

4.  Discuss the role of the buccinator muscle in mastication.

5.  Discuss the process of mastication, speech, and swallowing in regard to the muscles of the head and  neck.

6.  Integrate the knowledge about the muscles of the head and neck into the clinical practice of patient examination and related muscular diseases.

7.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck Ch. 4 pp.92-117

 

VASCULARITY & NERVOUS SYSTEMS (2.5 hrs)

Objectives:  Upon completion of the unit of study, the student should be able to:

 1.  Compare and contrast the functions of arteries and veins.

 2.  List the major branches of the common carotid artery.

 3.  Identify the three main branches of the external carotid artery.

 4.  Identify the location and function of the lingual artery, and the branches of the maxillary artery.

 5.  Identify the blood supply to the different teeth, and the relationship to the major fossae and foramen.

 6.  Identify the venous drainage of the head and neck region.

 7.  Identify the major arteries and veins of the head and neck region.

8.  Integrate the knowledge about the head and neck blood supply into clinical practice when a vascular   problem is present, especially from a local anesthetic injection, or during the spread of dental infection or cancerous cells by the blood.

9.  Discuss the divisions of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

10.  Describe the components of the nervous system and outline the actions of the nerves.

11.  Identify and trace the routes of the nerves to the oral cavity and associated structures of the head and     neck.

12.  Develop a glossary of terms.

Reading Assign. Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck Ch. 6 pp. 133-137 & Ch. 8 pp.171-196

 

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